Families

Native flowering plants that can be found in the Maryland piedmont, listed by family, with links to individual species pages. Note: names and classification are per the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), as of February, 2016.  Some of these species may be listed under different families in the USDA PLANTS Database and other sources.

Acanthaceae
Justicia americana   water willow
Ruellia caroliniensis   ruellia, hairy

Adoxaceae
Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis   elderberry
Viburnum acerifolium   viburnum, maple-leaved
Viburnum dentatum   viburnum, southern arrowwood
Viburnum lantanoides   hobblebush
Viburnum prunifolium   viburnum, smooth blackhaw

Alismataceae
Alisma subcordatum   water plantain, small
Sagittaria latifolia   arrowhead, common

Amarylidaceae
Allium canadense   garlic, wild
Allium cernuum   onion, nodding
Allium tricoccum   ramps

Anacardiaceae
Rhus copallinum   sumac, winged
Toxicodendron radicans   poison ivy

Annonaceae
Asimina triloba pawpaw

Apiaceae
Chaerophyllum tainturieri   chervil, southern
Cryptotaenia canadensis   honewort
Erigenia bulbosa   harbinger-of-spring
Osmorhiza claytonii   sweet cicely
Sanicula odorata   snakeroot, clustered
Zizia aurea   golden alexanders

Apocynaceae
Apocynum cannabinum   Indian-hemp
Asclepias incarnata   milkweed, swamp
Asclepias syriaca   milkweed, common
Asclepia viridiflora   green milkweed
Cynanchum laeve   honeyvine
Thyrsanthella difformis   dogbane, climbing

Aquifoliaceae
Ilex verticillata   holly, winterberry

Araceae
Arisaema triphyllum   jack-in-the-pulpit
Symplocarpus foetidus   skunk cabbage

Araliaceae
Aralia nudicaulis   wild sarsaparilla
Panax trifolius   ginseng, dwarf

Aristolochiaceae
Asarum canadense   ginger, wild

Asparagaceae
Maianthemum canadense   Canada mayflower
Maianthemum racemosum   Solomon’s seal, false
Polygonatum biflorum   Solomon’s seal, smooth
Polygonatum canaliculatum*   Solomon’s seal, great
*apparently no longer recognized as a species separate from P. biflorum

Asteraceae
Ageratina altissima var. altissima   snakeroot, white
Ageratina aromatica   snakeroot, lesser
Ambrosia trifida   ragweed, giant
Anaphalis margaritacea   everlasting, pearly
Antennaria plantaginifolia   pussytoes, plantain-leaved
Bidens bipinnata   Spanish needles
Bidens cernua   bur-marigold, nodding
Bidens frondosa   beggar-ticks
Bidens polylepis   tickseed-sunflower
Conoclinium coelestinum   mistflower
Conyza canadensis   horseweed
Coreopsis verticillata   coreopsis, whorled
Eclipta prostrata   daisy, false
Elephantopus carolinianus   elephant’s foot, Carolina
Erechtites hieraciifolius   pilewort; fireweed
Erigeron annuus   fleabane, daisy
Erigeron philadelphicus   fleabane, common
Erigeron pulchellus   fleabane, Robin-plantain
Erigeron strigosus   fleabane, prarie
Eupatorium godfreyanum   Godfrey’s thoroughwort
Eupatorium hyssopifolium   boneset, hyssop-leaved
Eupatorium perfoliatum   boneset
Eupatorium rotundifolium var. ovatum   boneset, hairy
Eupatorium serotinum   bonest, late-flowering
Eupatorium sessilifolium   boneset, upland
Eupatorium torreyanum   Torrey’s thoroughwort
Eurybia divaricata   aster, white wood
Eurybia macrophylla   aster, big-leaved
Euthamia graminifolia   goldentop, grass-leaved
Euthrochium fistulosum   joe-pye weed, hollow
Eutrochium purpureum   joe-pye weed, sweet
Helenium autumnale   sneezeweed
Helenium flexuosum   sneezeweed, purple-headed
Helianthus decapetalus   sunflower, thin-leaved
Helianthus divaricatus   sunflower, woodland
Helianthus tuberosus   sunflower, Jerusalem artichoke
Hieracium gronovii   hawkweed, hairy
Hieracium venosum   rattlesnake weed
Ionactis linariifolius   aster, stiff
Krigia dandelion  dandelion, dwarf
Lactuca canadensis   lettuce, wild
Mikania scandens   boneset, climbing
Packera aurea   ragwort, golden
Polymnia canadensis   leafcup, white flowered
Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima   black-eyed Susan
Rudbeckia laciniata   coneflower, tall
Sericocarpus asteroides   aster, toothed white-topped
Smallanthus uvedalia   leafcup, large-flowered
Solidago erecta   goldenrod, slender
Solidago bicolor   goldenrod, white; silverrod
Solidago caesia   goldenrod, bluestem
Solidago canadensis   goldenrod, Canada
Solidago flexicaulis   goldenrod, zigzag
Solidago gigantea   goldenrod, late
Solidago juncea   goldenrod, early
Solidago odora   goldenrod, sweet
Solidago simplex var. racemosa   goldenrod, racemose
Solidago uliginosa   goldenrod, bog
Solidago ulmifolia   goldenrod, elm-leaved
Symphyotrichum cordifolium   aster, heart-leaved
Symphyotrichum dumosum   aster, bushy
Symphyotrichum ericoides   aster, heath
Symphyotrichum laeve   aster, smooth
Symphyotrichum lanceolatum   aster, panicled
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum   aster, calico
Symphyotrichum pilosum   aster
Symphyotrichum shortii   aster, Short’s
Verbesina alternifolia   wingstem
Vernonia noveboracensis   ironweed, New York

Balsaminaceae
Impatiens capensis   jewelweed, spotted
Impatiens pallida   jewelweed, pale

Berberidaceae
Caulophyllum thalictroides   blue cohosh
Jeffersonia diphylla   twinleaf
Podophyllum peltatum   may-apple

Bignoniaceae
Campsis radicans   trumpet creeper
Catalpa speciosa   catalpa, northern

Boraginaceae
Mertensia virginica   bluebells, Virginia (also white form, pink form, pale violet form)
Myosotis verna   spring forget-me-not

Brassicaceae
Arabidopsis lyrata   cress, lyre-leaved rock
Boechera laevigata   cress, smooth rock
Cardamine angustata   toothwort, slender
Cardamine bulbosa   cress, spring
Cardamine concatenata   toothwort, cut-leaved
Cardamine pensylvanica   cress, Pennsylvania bitter

Cactaceae
Opuntia humifusa eastern prickly pear

Campanulaceae
Lobelia inflata   Indian-tobacco
Lobelia cardinalis   cardinal flower
Lobelia siphilitica   lobelia, great blue
Triodanis perfoliata   Venus’ looking glass

Caryophyllaceae
Cerastium arvense   chickweed, field
Silene caroliniana   pink, wild
Silene stellata   campion, starry
Stellaria pubera   chickweed, star

Celastraceae
Euonymus americanus   strawberry bush

Colchicaceae
Uvularia perfoliata   bellwort, perfoliate
Uvularia sessilifollia   bellowrt, sessile

Commelinaceae
Commelina virginica   dayflower, Virginia
Tradescantia virginiana   spiderwort

Convolvulaceae
Cuscuta gronovii   dodder
Ipomoea pandurata   potato vine, wild

Cornaceae
Cornus alternifolia   dogwood, pagoda
Cornus florida   dogwood, flowering

Crassulaceae
Hylotelephium telephioides   stonecrop, Allegheny
Sedum ternatum   stonecrop, wild

Curcurbitaceae
Sicyos angulatus   one-seeded bur cucumber

Cyperaceae
Carex grayi   sedge, Gray’s

Dioscoreaceae
Dioscorea villosa   yamroot, wild

Ericaceae
Chimaphila maculata   wintergreen, spotted
Eubotrys racemosa   swamp doghobble
Gaultheria procumbens   wintergreen
Kalmia latifolia   mountain laurel
Hypopitys monotropa   pinesap
Monotropa uniflora   Indian-pipe
Rhododendron periclymenoides   pinxter azalea
Vaccinium corymbosum  highbush blueberry
Vaccinium stamineum   deerberry

Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia corollata   spurge, flowering

Fabaceae
Amphicarpaea bracteata   hog-peanut
Baptisia australis   blue false indigo
Baptisia tinctoria   wild indigo
Cercis canadensis   redbud
Chamaecrista fasciculata var. fasciculata   partridge-pea
Chamaecrista nictitans var. nictitans   sensitive plant, wild
Clitoria mariana   butterfly pea
Desmodium canadense   tick trefoil, showy
Desmodium canescens   tick trefoil, hoary
Desmodium paniculatum   tick trefoil, panicled
Hylodesmum glutinosum   tick trefoil, pointy leaf
Hylodesmum nudiflorum   tick trefoil, naked-flowered
Lespedeza repens   bush-clover, creeping
Lespedeza virginica   bush clover, slender
Robina pseudoacacia   locust, black
Senna hebecarpa   senna, wild
Strophostyles umbellata   bean, pink wild
Vicia americana   vetch, American

Fagaceae
Fagus grandifolia   beech, American
Quercus muehlenbergii   oak, chinkapin

Geraniaceae
Geranium carolinianum var. carolinianum   cranesbill, Carolina
Geranium maculatum   geranium, wild
Geranium robertianum   herb robert

Gentianaceae
Obolaria virginica   pennywort
Sabatia angularis   rosepink

Hamamelidaceae
Hamamelis virginiana   witch hazel

Hydrangeaceae
Hydrangea arborescens   hydrangea, wild

Hydrophyllaceae
Hydrophyllum canadense   waterleaf, broad-leaved
Hydrophyllum virginianum   waterleaf, Virginia
Phacelia covillei   phacelia, Coville’s
Phacelia purshii   phacelia, fringed

Hypericaceae
Hypericum densiflorum   St. Johnswort, bushy
Hypericum gentianoides orangegrass
Hypericum hypericoides   St. Andrew’s-cross
Hypericum mutilum   St. Johnswort, small-flowered
Hypericum prolificum   St. Johnswort, shrubby
Hypericum punctatum   St. Johnswort, spotted

Hypoxidaceae
Hypoxis hirsuta   yellow star grass

Iridaceae
Iris versicolor   blue flag, northern
Iris virginica     blue flag, southern
Sisyrinchium angustifolium   blue-eyed grass

Juglandaceae
Juglans nigra   black walnut

Lamiaceae
Clinopodium vulgare   basil, wild
Collinsonia canadensis   horse balm
Cunila origanoides   common dittany
Lycopus uniflorus   bugleweed, northern
Lycopus virginicus   bugleweed, Virginia
Mentha arvensis   mint, wild
Monarda clinopodia   basil balm
Monarda fistulosa   wild bergamot
Physostegia virginiana   obedient plant
Prunella vulgaris   heal-all (also white form)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium   mountain mint, narrow-leaved
Salvia lyrata   sage, lyre-leaved
Scutellaria elliptica   skullcap, hairy
Scutellaria nervosa   skullcap, veiny
Teucrium canadense   germander, American
Trichostema dichotomum   blue curls

Lauraceae
Lindera benzoin   spicebush
Sassafras albidum   sassafras

Liliaceae
Erythronium albidum   trout lily, white
Erythronium americanum   trout lily
Medeola virginiana   cucmber root, Indian

Linderniaceae
Lindernia dubia   pimpernel, false

Magnoliaceae
Liriodendron tulipifera   tulip poplar
Magnolia macrophylla   bigleaf magnolia

Malvaceae
Hibiscus laevis   rosemallow, halberd-leaf
Hibiscus moscheutos   rosemallow, swamp

Melanthiaceae
Trillium cernuum   nodding trillium
Trillium sessile   toadshade (also yellow form)
Veratrum viride  hellebore, green false

Nymphaeaceae
Nuphar advena   spatterdock

Menispermaceae
Menispermum canadense   moonseed

Oleaceae
Chionanthus virginicus   fringe tree

Onagraceae
Circaea lutetiana   enchanter’s nightshade
Ludwigia alternifolia   seedbox
Ludwigia decurrens   willow-primrose, wingleaf
Oenothera biennis   evening primrose, common

Orchidaceae
Aplectrum hyemale   puttyroot orchid
Cypripedium acaule   pink lady slipper
Galearis spectabilis   showy orchis
Goodyera pubescens  downy rattlesnake plantain
Tipularia discolor   craneflly orchid

Orobanchaceae
Conopholis americana   squaw-root
Epifagus virginiana   beech drops
Orobanche uniflora   one-flower cancer root

Oxalidaceae
Oxalis grandis   wood sorrel, great
Oxalis stricta   wood sorrel, yellow
Oxalis violacea   wood sorrel, violet

Papaveraceae
Corydalis flavula   corydalis, short-spurred
Dicentra canadensis   squirrel-corn
Dicentra cucullaria   Dutchman’s breeches
Sanguinaria canadensis   bloodroot
Stylophorum diphyllum   poppy, wood

Passifloraceae
Passiflora lutea   passionflower, yellow

Phrymaceae
Mimulus alatus   monkey-flower, winged
Mimulus ringens   monkey-flower, allegheny
Phryma leptostachya   lopseed

Phytolaccaceae
Phytolacca americana   pokeweed

Plantaginaceae
Penstemon digitalis   beardtongue, tall
Penstemon hirsutis   beardtongue, hairy
Veronica anagallis-aquatica speedwell, water
Veronica officinalis   speedwell, common
Veronicastrum virginicum   culver’s root

Poaceae
Andropogon gerardii   grass, big bluestem
Chasmanthium latifolium   grass, northern sea oats
Dichanthelium clandestinum   grass, broad-leaved panic
Elymus hystrix   grass, bottle-brush

Polemoniaceae
Phlox divaricata   phlox, wild blue
Phlox paniculata   phlox, garden
Phlox subulata   moss phlox

Polygalaceae
Polygala sanguinea   milkwort, purple

Polygonaceae
Persicaria amphibia   smartweed, swamp
Persicaria lapathifolia   smartweed, nodding
Persicaria pensylvanica   smartweed, Pennsylvania
Persicara punctata   smartweed, dotted
Persicaria sagittatua   tearthumb, arrow-leaved
Persicaria virginiana   jumpseed

Pontederiaceae
Heteranthera dubia   mudplantain, grassleaf
Pontederia cordata   pickerel-weed

Portulacaceae
Claytonia virginica   spring beauty

Primulaceae
Lysimachia ciliata   loosestrife, fringed
Lysimachia quadrifolia   loosestrife, whorled yellow
Lysimachia terrestris   loosestrife, swamp

Ranunculaceae
Actaea racemosa   cohosh, black
Anemone americana   hepatica, round-lobed
Anemone quinquefolia   anemone, wood
Anemone virginiana   thimbleweed
Caltha palustris   marsh marigold
Ranunculus abortivus   buttercup, kidney-leaved
Ranunculus hispidus  buttercup, swamp
Ranunculus recurvatus   crowfoot, hooked
Thalictrum dioicum   meadow rue, early
Thalictrum pubescens   meadow rue, tall
Thalictrum thalictroides   rue anemone

Rhamnaceae
Ceanothus americanus   New Jersey tea

Rosaceae
Agrimonia gryposepala   agrimony, common
Agrimonia parviflora   agrimony, southern
Amelanchier arborea   serviceberry, downy
Aruncus dioicus   goatsbeard
Geum aleppicum   avens, yellow
Geum canadense var. canadense  avens, white
Geum vernum   avens, spring
Potentilla canadensis   cinquefoil, dwarf
Potentilla simplex cinquefoil, common
Prunus virginiana   choke cherry
Rosa carolina var. carolina   rose, pasture
Rubus flagellaris   dewberry, common
Rubus hispidus   dewberry, swamp
Rubus odoratus   raspberry, purple-flowering

Rubiaceae
Cephalanthus occidentalis   buttonbush
Diodella teres   poorjoe
Diodia virginiana var. virginiana   buttonweed, Virginia
Galium aparine   cleavers
Galium circaezans   licorice, wild
Galium concinnum   bedstraws, shining
Houstonia caerulea   bluets, azure
Houstonia longifolia   bluets, long-leaved
Houstonia purpurea   Venus’ pride
Mitchella repens   partridgeberry

Santalaceae
Comandra umbellata   bastard toadflax

Sapindaceae
Acer rubrum   maple, red
Acer negundo box elder

Saururuaceae
Saururus cernuus   lizard’s-tail

Saxifragaceae
Chrysosplenium americanum   saxifrage, golden
Heuchera americana   alumroot
Micranthes virginiensis   saxifrage, early
Mitella diphylla   miterwort

Smilacaceae
Smilax rotundifolia   greenbriar

Solanaceae
Physalis heterophylla   ground cherry, clammy
Solanum carolinense   horse nettle

Staphyleaceae
Staphylea trifolia   bladdernut, American

Thymelaeaceae
Dirca palustris   leatherwood

Typhaceae
Typha latifolia   cattail, common

Ulmaceae
Ulmus americana   elm, American

Urticaceae
Laportea canadensis   nettle, wood

Valerianaceae
Valeriana pauciflora   valerian, long-tube

Verbenaceae
Phyla lanceolata   fogfruit
Verbena hastata   vervain, blue
Verbena urticifolia   vervain, white

Violaceae
Viola blanda or V. primulifolia  violet, sweet white or primrose-leaved
Viola cucullata   violet, marsh blue
Viola palmata   violet, three-lobe
Viola pubescens var. pubescens   violet, downy yellow
Viola pubescens var. scabriuscula    violet, downy yellow
Viola sagittata var. ovata   violet, arrowleaf
Viola sororia   violet, common blue (also white form)
Viola striata   violet, creamy

Vitaceae
Vitis vulpina   frost grape


Non-Flowering Plants (Ferns and Fern Allies)

Aspleniaceae
Asplenium asplenioides   lady fern, southern
Asplenium platyneuron   ebony spleenwort
Asplenium rhizophyllum   walking fern
Asplenium ruta-muraria   walking fern
Asplenium trichomanes   maidenhair spleenwort

Cystopteridaceae
Cystopteris bulbifera   bulblet bladder fern
Cystopteris fragilis   fragile fern
Cysopteris protrusa   lowland brittle fern

Dryopteridaceae
Dryopteris intermedia   glandular evergreen wood fern
Drypoteris marginalis   marginal wood fern
Onoclea sensibilis   sensitive fern
Polystichum acrostichoides   christmas fern

Equisetaceae
Equisetum pratense   horsetail, meadow

Lycopodiaceae
Dendrolycopodium hickeyi   princess pine
Huperzia lucidula   shining clubmoss; firmoss
Lycopodium obscurum   princess pine

Ophioglossaceae
Botrypus virginianus   rattlesnake fern

Osmundaceae
Osmunda cinnamomea   cinnamon fern
Osmunda claytoniana    interrupted fern

Polypodiaceae
Polypodium virginianum   rock polypody

Pteridaceae
Adiantum pedatum   northern maidenhair fern
Pellaea atropurpurea   purple-stem cliffbrake

Thelypteridaceae
Phegopteris hexagonoptera   broad beech fern
Parathelyteris noveboracensis   New York fern

Woodsiaceae
Deparia acrostichoides   silvery glade fern
Woodsia obtusa blunt-lobed   cliff fern

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