It’s a good time of year to be watching for emerging fiddleheads, also called croziers. Here’s a random assortment of some I’ve found, including several that I haven’t identified; that will probably have to wait for fertile fronds to emerge later in the year.


I just love this one; it looks like a dragon or alien monster or something.  This fern is all over the place at Sugarloaf Mountain and Rachel Carson Conservation Park; I expect it’s one of the Dryopteras. It is not one of the evergreen ferns.


Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides), below, is easily identified because it’s so hairy.



Another unknown (right and below); I’ve been seeing it in wet areas in parts of Montgomery County other than the Potomac Gorge.



Right, one of my favorites: ebony spleenwort (Asplenium platyneuron). Below, a forefinger held up to the same plant.20160405-_DSC0163


And this one (right) was a good find. It’s the fertile frond of a rattlesnake fern (Botrypus virginianus), which I’ve only seen once before. You can see the spherical sori contained within. This plant was in Rachel Carson Conservation Park, where I went to see the pinxter azaleas in bloom. (More on that in a few days.) Below is a picture from last year, showing the fully developed fertile frond.


Desert Velvet


also known as turtleback
or velvet turtleback
Psathyrotes ramosissima


This neat little plant is not quite a belly flower: it is very low growing (five inches tall at most), but it can spread pretty wide. It’s variously described as a small shrub, annual forb, or short-lived perennial. On many desert plants, the foliage is as attractive as the flowers, and so it is here: thick, fuzzy, silvery sage-green leaves are mounded so as to resemble the back of a turtle. The inflorescence consists only of disk flowers (no rays).

Apparently it’s pretty common in the Mojave desert at low elevations, but for some reason I saw only this one plant, in a wash near Beatty Road.


And that’s it for the Death Valley report. There are a few more plants that I haven’t positively identified yet (five of them probably Cryptanthas), and I don’t have great pictures of them. There are still about 200 landscape photos to go through; eventually I’ll be posting a dozen or two of them on my other website (


Odds and Ends

Two more plants I found blooming in Death Valley. At first I found neither of them interesting, but the more I read – or the more closely I looked – the more I liked them.


sticky ringstem, valley ringstem
Anulocaulis annulatus

This plant is endemic to the Mojave desert. It’s a perennial with a shrub-like growth habit. The flowers are quite small; you really have to zoom in to see them.








yellow nightshade groundcherry
Physalis crassifolia

There are several plants producing edible fruits in the genus Physalis: tomatillo and Cape gooseberry. Also “groundcherry”, which I’ve seen on menus (and my plate) in trendy restaurants, but I’d hesitate to say that this particular groundcherry is one of the edible ones. As with the Apiaceae, the Solanaceae (deadly nightshade family) has some tasty, culinarily important species as well as poisonous ones.

This range of P. crassifolia is limited to the desert southwest. Like sticky ringstem, it’s a perennial with a shrub-like growth habit.

Have a look at this abstract from the Journal of Natural Products; it seems that P. crassifolia can produce compounds showing “potent antiproliferative activity” that may some day be used for treating certain cancers.


Two More from the Asteraceae

Into the final few days of Death Valley reports…20160308-_DSC0135

pebble pincushion
Chaenactis carphoclinia

This pretty flower is an annual growing to two feet tall (at best), and is found in the Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonora deserts of Utah, California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico. All species in the genus Chaenactis are found only in the western US.




Mojave ragwort, Mojave groundsel
Senecio mohavensis

And this not so pretty flower is also an annual, also growing to about two feet tall.  It’s found in the Mojave and Sonora deserts of California, Nevada, and Arizona. Senecio is mostly a western genus but two species appear in the east, including pilewort, which, confusingly, is no longer considered to be in the genus Senecio. Those darn splitters have been at it again.


Two More Evening Primroses


brown-eyed evening-primrose
Chylismia claviformis ssp. claviformis
(right and below)




shredding evening-primrose
Eremothera boothii ssp.condensata



Both of these species in the Onagraceae are annuals found in various deserts of the American West. I spent some time trying to find interesting facts about them, but came up with very little. According to Pam Mackay’s Mojave Desert Wildflowers: A Field Guide to Wildflowers, Trees, and Shrubs, brown-eyed evening primrose has an extremely high photosynthetic rate. Also, the plant is favored by white-lined sphinx moth larvae, a fact that reminded me of a few photos I took of caterpillars, like this one:


There seems to be some morphological variation in these, so I’m not positive of the identification. But it was hanging around the brown-eyed evening primroses…